英国建筑联盟学院武汉访校:

中国集体形制 – 单位大院与人民公社




注:建筑东西推出全新版块-AA Visiting School (缩写AAVS),为大家即时报道AA全球访问学校的最新信息与成果。所有发布内容已获各访校负责人授权。

作者:程婧如,Sam Jacoby

AA VISITING SCHOOL CHINA, WUHAN
Collective Forms in China:
The Danwei and People's Commune


Poster: The People’s Communes are Good. [人民公社好]

Rendering of masterplan for parts of Beijing by the Huabei Zhishu Sheji Gongsi.


1. 主题介绍

单位大院和人民公社是毛泽东时代的社会、政治、经济与空间模型,他们从根本上重组了当时的中国社会。从20世纪50年代到80年代,通过城市的单位制度和农村的公社制度,中国政府对其人口实行了强制性的工业化与集体化。从大跃进运动开始,这两个模型的推行是为了推动社会和空间的全面重组,加强中国的社会主义新人民共和国,实现中国的现代化。因此,这两种集体形制带来了全方位的制度化和新的生产与管理的模式。空间组织方式与尺度上根本性变化重新定义了当时工人,农民与国家之间的关系。单位大院与人民公社由此奠定了当今中国城乡的社会与空间肌醇,其影响在当代中国仍然真实可见。

本次英国建筑联盟学院武汉访问学校旨在深入研究渐被遗忘的单位大院与人民公社模型。研究范围包括空间设计,社会实践与空间设计的关系,管理结构以及经济组织模型等。在建筑设计与城市的范畴下,本次访校将重新审视单位大院与人民公社作为曾经改造中国社会的社会项目背后的理念,解读他们所创造的社会现实。

本次访校将与在此领域经验丰富的当地学者,学生共同协作,提供一个能够探访这些空间遗产与历史材料的宝贵机会。今年的访问学校与武汉华中科技大学合作,所有参与者将有机会参与到访校结业时的学术研讨会,同时作品也有机会被收录到相关出版物中。

本次访校由英国建筑联盟学院在职资深导师Dr. Sam Jacoby和在读博士研究生程婧如组织与发起。Dr. Jacoby在AA任教超过十年,为AA建筑与城市设计硕士课程(M.Phil in Architecture andUrban Design)的联合创始人与现任总负责人。本次AA武汉访问学校不仅仅是一次重新审视几乎被中国人自己遗忘的中国空间历史的机会,也是深入了解AA教学理念与体系的一个难能可贵的契机。



2. 工作坊

本次“集体形制”工作坊是由英国伦敦的建筑联盟学院(AA)访问学校项目与中国武汉的华中科技大学共同组织架构。

所有参与者将通过实地调研、案例分析、历史材料研究和课程讲座获得关于深入理解与研究中国的单位大院和人民公社——这两个中国最重要的社会、政治、经济与空间模型。在具体研究内容之外,工作坊将引入AA的教学模式,介绍针对更宏观的社会框架下建筑学研究的方法论。

工作坊将提供:
1. 对研究与表达能力的训练
2. 对图解与分析能力的训练
3. 与该领域顶尖学者面对面研讨的机会
4. 参与学术研讨会的机会
5. 作品收录出版的机会

时间:2016年8月1日 - 8月14日
地址:中国湖北省武汉市珞瑜路1037号华中科技大学建筑与城市规划学院



城市研究示例
Urban Study Example



Managerial city vs Barroque city
Project: Brussels – Capital of Europe by Guillem Pons (Projective Cities, 2015)



类型学研究示例
Typological Study Example



Analysis of productive environments in Lille
Project: Tertiary City Lille by Simon Goddard (Projective Cities, 2015)



宣言式设计表现示例
Design Manifesto Example



Image: Manifesto for a New Quadrangle Type and New Collectivity
Project: Quadrangle: Education, Collective Form and Social Networks by Renze Zhang (Projective Cities, 2014)



Image: The new Couree
Project: Lille and the Post-urban Economy by Simon Goddard (Projective Cities, 2014)




3. 访校导师

Dr. Sam Jacoby
Sam Jacoby博士是执业建筑师,毕业于英国建筑联盟协会,并获得柏林工业大学博士学位。他曾在英国,美国以及马来西亚进行建筑实践,并在英国建筑联盟学院,诺丁汉大学,伦敦大学巴特莱特建筑学院以及皇家艺术学院执教。现为AA 建筑与城市设计硕士课程总负责人。

Jacoby的专著有“DrawingArchitecture and the Urban“,合著有“Typological Formations:Reneable Building Types and the City”,并为多个国际期刊的客座编辑,包括英国皇家建筑师协会官方期刊TheJournal of Arhitecture的“类型与类型学”专刊,ArchitecturalDesign (AD)的“类型学城市化”专刊,以及城市空间设计杂志的“建筑与城市设计中的全新设计研究”专刊。

程婧如
程婧如现为英国建筑联盟(AA)建筑设计学博士候选人。她的博士研究关注于中国农村空间与社会模型的系统性研究与设计。程婧如在多项国际学术活动中汇报演讲,其中包括美国哥伦比亚大学大学‘AssemblingValues’国际会议,爱尔兰‘Alter-Rurality’国际会议,以及2015北京国际设计周。她在英国建筑联盟学院获得建筑学硕士,毕业设计在AAGraduate Honours Exhibition, AA Director’s Selection Exhibition,伦敦中国设计中心以及北京国际设计周展出,并被ICON杂志与《城市空间设计》杂志报道。程婧如是以AA中国校友联盟为基础的‘建筑东西(ACROSSArchitecture)’的联合创始人和负责人。


中国召集人:

谭刚毅 教授
谭刚毅教授是华中科技大学建筑与城市规划学院副院长,建筑学系主任,《新建筑》副主编,中国建筑史学会民居专业委员会副秘书长,香港大学和英国谢菲尔德大学访问学者。

谭刚毅教授完成学术专著4部,境内外期刊和回忆发表论文近50篇。主持国家自然科学基金2项。曾获2006年全国优秀博士学位论文提名奖,2003年获联合国教科文组织亚太地区文化遗产保护奖第一名“杰出项目奖”。另外曾获日本《新建筑》“都市住居”住宅设计国际竞赛三等奖(协力)和广东省勘察设计协会优秀设计一等奖等竞赛和设计奖项。



4. 研讨会

本次访问学校结业时将会举办为期两天的研讨会,包括国际知名学者讲座与访校学生最终成果汇报。

主题演讲人:

Dr. David Bray
Senior Lecturer, University of Sydney

David Bray’s research is focused on exploring the inter-relationships between the built environment, governance and social change in contemporary China. Utilising post-structuralist theorisations on power, ‘governmentality’ and spatiality he aims to understand both how the built environment is imagined and planned at a governmental and technocratic level, as well as how its reconstruction impacts on communities and subjectivities at the local level. In particular David is interested in the multifarious ways in which the built environment becomes both a strategic resource for governmental interventions and a site of local resistance to those interventions and to the discourses they embody. China’s rapid urban transformation in recent years is of global significance in its own right, but in a comparative context, it also raises many intriguing challenges to established understandings of modernisation,urbanisation and social change: in this broader context, David’s research seeks to address larger theoretical debates associated with fields such as urban sociology,human geography, social policy, city planning and globalisation.

Publications:
Social Space and Governance in Urban China: The Danwei System from Origins to Reform (2005)
New Mentalities of Government in China (2016)


演讲嘉宾:

鲁安东
南京大学建筑与城市规划学院教授,南京大学-剑桥大学建筑与城市合作研究中心执行主任。清华大学建筑学院学士学位(B.Arch.),英国剑桥大学建筑系硕士学位(M.Phil.),英国剑桥大学建筑系博士学位(Ph.D.)。英国建筑史学会会员,国际艺术史学会会员,英国建筑人文科学研究协会会员,国际学术期刊Journalof Asian Architecture and Building Engineering编委,国际学术期刊UrbanMorphology, Landscape Research, Digital Creativity,InternationalDevelopment Planning Review审稿人。曾任英国剑桥大学沃夫森学院院士,德国安哈尔特应用技术大学客座教授,荷兰代尔夫特理工大学访问学者。

李华
东南大学建筑学院副教授。英国建筑联盟学院博士。主要研究兴趣是建筑与现代性的关系,建筑话语与概念在不同文化语境中的“翻译”和“转译”,以及当代中国建筑的现代性实践。

李巨川
湖北美术学院副教授。1990年代起,以行为、艺术、照片和场地装置等方式进行建筑时间,同时进行相关的写作演讲、教学与展览。近十年,他的兴趣更多地集中在城市空间和空间政治问题,致力于探讨个人抵抗由各种政治与经济权利所主导的城市空间生产的可能,以及建筑师的知识用于更广泛的实践领域的可能。2010年,与武汉艺术家共同发起“每个人的东湖”艺术计划。现居武汉。

王家浩
建筑与艺术评论家,策展人,建筑实验者。从事建筑设计、都市研究、艺术创作,致力于探讨全球奇观资本压力下的都市化进程,以及在此条件下的社会发展模式更新,并对最为创作主体‘建筑师’的知识体系与社会生产机制提出挑战性批评。长期关注当代建筑与思想的东西,笔耕不辍,论文在多种艺术与建筑类杂志发表。近十年来,发起、策划并组织建筑、城市与艺术跨领域合作的展览、论坛及项目,个人作品多次参加国内外当代艺术展、双年展等。先为集体策展团队‘BLOOM绽’发起人。联合主持BAU学社以及‘包豪斯情境及其当代条件’的历史研究工作,策划主编‘BAU译丛’的系列出版物。



5. 申请流程

1)您可以通过填写在线申请表格完成申请。获取在线表格请点击AA访校页面的’链接与下载’处。如果您无法完成在线申请,可以发送邮件到visitingschool@aaschool.ac.uk咨询并按相应指示完成申请。

2)完成在线申请与全额付款后,即成功注册。

所有国外参与者需要自己负责相关签证。我们建议尽早与所在国家大使馆联系。支付访校费用后,英国建筑联盟学院将提供正式确认函以及相关帮助。

- 费用:
AA访校将收取每位参与者695英镑的费用,其中已包含60英镑的访问会员费。
依据需求有一定额度的团体优惠,请通过visitingschool@aaschool.ac.uk与访校负责人商议。

该费用不包含机票及住宿,我们会有在力所能及的范围内为参与者推荐相关住宿。学生需要自备电脑和必要的电子设备。请注意保管好个人财物,AA将不会承担任何工作坊期间的财产损失。

- 报名要求:
本次访校面向建筑与城市规划学生,实践建筑师,规划师以及相关研究者。参与者需有较好的英语水平。

- 认证机制:
英国建筑联盟学院会向顺利完成访校课程的参与者颁发由AA校长签名的结业证书。

- 更多详尽内容可参考以下链接:
http://china.aaschool.ac.uk
https://www.aaschool.ac.uk/STUDY/VISITING/wuhan


6. 英国建筑联盟学院简介



英国建筑联盟学院(AA:The Architectural Association School of Archiecture)位于英国伦敦,自1847年成立以来,一直以其先锋性著称,引领着最前沿的建筑实验教学;培养了诸如雷姆库哈斯,扎哈哈迪德,理查德罗杰斯,蓝天组等数不胜数的先锋建筑师们。AA访问学校是AA全球建筑教育合作的重要部分,旨在将最先进的建筑理念带到不同的国家,与当地院校合作,用最前沿的教学理念和学术资源共同探讨具有地方性的实验建筑教育。



7. 英国建筑联盟学院的教学理念与方式
—— 武汉访问学校联合负责人程婧如眼中的AA

AA是一个不同建筑观百花争鸣的大舞台。对我来说,AA的独特性正是在于它所营造的这样一种学术环境:支持各种态度鲜明(甚至是对立)地实验性探索方向。这里必须要提的是,中国学生对AA的普遍认知容易停留在侧重参数化设计的DRL课程上;而事实上,DRL只是AA数十个diploma单元和研究生院不同专业中的冰山一角。因此,仅通过参数化设计去理解和定义AA的建筑教育是有失偏颇的。刚进入AA的时候,与国内大学迥异的建筑教育环境带给我的影响几乎可以被看做是一种文化冲击(cultureshock)。后来我慢慢意识到这种差异性来源于AA diploma教学体系中的单元模式(unitsystem)。每一个单元之所以能成立都是因为有着自己鲜明的特色和与众不同的态度,能为整个AA这个大舞台带来不一样的观点。每个单元在各自的研究框架下每年提出不同的单元议题(unitbrief),由老师和学生一起推进发展。当然,每个学生在接受这些观点和方法的时候都会因为个人的文化、教育背景等的不同而得到属于自己的东西。所以,下文所表述的建筑观仅代表我的个人观点,以图为了解AA的教学思想提供提供一个窗口。

我所接受的AA硕士教育追求理性的历史叙事,追求透过现象探求本质。往往当现象被追问到本质的时候才具有社会的普遍性,才具有普世的指导意义。在这样的语境下,建筑的意义早已超越了房子或者说物理上的构筑物这一定义。广义上说,建筑是知识与建成环境之间的媒介。由此,建筑可以被看做是它所在的时代中政治经济等要素的物化体现。举个例子,当建成环境能够向它的使用者展现合理、和谐的社会愿景的时候,建筑就具有了一层政治意义。从某种程度上说,我们可以通过建筑探讨“应该成为的样子(whatought to be)”而不是“是什么样子(what is)”。这也是为什么从一个有代表性的(typical)建筑身上我们能够窥视一个时代。这样,建筑师职责则是提炼或者创造能被大众理解与使用的建筑语言和体系。

对比大多数中国的建筑教育,所强调的建筑技术、材料甚至是空间其实都只是建筑这个概念物化的实现手段。也就是说,中国的建筑教育更多的关注于建筑的物理性质本身,教育的目的是使学生具备实现建筑物理形式的技能。而AA的建筑教育关注的是物化体现背后的观点或者说政治经济规律。在这样的语境下,对建筑的思考更像是思潮,是对复杂现实的提炼与概括,是具有指导意义的总纲;因而,最终的物理实现形式变得相对次要了。这也是为什么很多AA的作品更像是一份社会宣言,而非一个常规意义上的建筑项目。

注:节选自程婧如发表在《城市空间设计》2015 (05): 94-97的文章,有删改。



1. INTRODUCTION

The danwei (work unit) and the People’s Commune (collective unit) are the two socio-political, economic and spatial models that profoundly restructured Chinese society in the Maoist era. From the 1950s to 1980s, China imposed onits population a mandatory collectivisation and industrialisation through an urban danwei system and rural communes. Starting with the Great Leap Forward, its aim was a social and spatial reorganisation that was to strengthen the new socialist People’s Republic of China and realise Chinese modernity. Thus, coinciding with all-encompassing institutionalisation and new modes of production and governance, the two collective forms created a radical change in scale and organisation, and redefined the relationships between workers, peasants and state. Laying the foundations to today’s urban and rural China, their impacts are still visible and real.

This Visiting School will examine the danwei and People’s Commune in depth. We will study their spatial design and its relation to social practices, governmental structures and economic organisation. Reviewing their conception as social projects and the social realities they produced, we will discuss their legacies for discourses in architecture and urban design.

The Visiting School is organised in collaboration with local scholars and students, and offers an opportunity to access rare historical documents. This year’s Visiting School will take place in Wuhan at the Huazhong University of Science & Technology. Participants will have the opportunity to participate a symposium held at the end of the Visiting School and contribute to a later publication.



2. WORKSHOP

The workshop Collective Forms in China is organised by the Visiting School of the Architectural Association School of Architecture (AA) in London, UK, in collaboration with Huazhong University of Science & Technology (HUST) in Wuhan, P. R. China.

Participants will get an in-depth knowledge of the Chinese Danwei system and the People’s Commune, the most important historical planning models in China, through case-study analysis, archival research and seminars.

The workshop offers:

• Development of research and presentation skills.
• Development of drawing and analytical skills.
• Seminars with scholars leading in the field.
• Participation in academic symposium.
• Contribution to publication.

Date: 1-14 August 2016
Venue: School of Architecture and Urban Planning (SAUP), Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, P. R. China.



3. PEOPLE

Dr. Sam Jacoby

Dr. SamJacoby is a chartered architect with a Diploma from the Architectural Association and a doctorate from the Technische Universität Berlin. He worked inthe UK, USA and Malaysia, and taught at the AA, the University of Nottingham, Bartlett School of Architecture and Royal College of Art. He is currently the Director of the MPhil in Architecture and Urban Design (Projective Cities) at the AA.

Jacoby is author of Drawing Architecture and the Urban (2016), guest editor of the special journal issues ‘New Design Research in Architecture and Urban Design’ by Urban Flux (2015),‘Type versus Typology’ by The Journal of Architecture (2015), and ‘TypologicalUrbanism: Projective Cities’ by Architectural Design (2011), as well as co-editor of Typological Formations: Renewable Building Types and the City (2007).


Jingru Cyan Cheng

Jingru Cyan Cheng is currently a PhD Candidate at the Architectural Association School of Architecture. Her PhD research focuses on the architecture of rural settlement and to propose a systematic project for China’s rural territory. She has given presentations internationally, including the research on the People’s Commune in the conference Assembling Values in Columbia University, the United State, design project in the conference Alter-Rurality in Ireland and talks in 2015 Beijing Design Week, China. She graduated with an MPhil in Architecture from the AA (Projective Cities Programme). Her MPhil research was exhibited at the AA Graduate Honours Exhibition, the AA Director’s Selection Exhibition, at the China Design Centre in London and in the Beijing Design Week in Beijing, and featured in ICON and Urban Flux. Cheng is the co-founder and co-director of ACROSS Architecture, an independent academic association consisting of Chinese AA graduates and current students.


CONVENOR IN CHINA:

Prof. Dr. Gangyi Tan

Ph.D(SCUT); Vice Dean and Head of Department of Architecture at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology; Deputy Editor-in-chief of New Architecture; Vice secretary-general of the Chinese Vernacular Architecture Research Association; Visiting scholar at the University of Hong Kong(2010-11); Visiting scholar at the University of Sheffield, UK (2012-13).

Prof.Tan’s publications include: 4 monographs, 50 journal papers and academic conference papers. He has been principal investigator for two projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China. Tan won amongst others the Honourable Mention prize by the National Excellent Doctoral Dissertation, the 2003 UNESCO Asia-Pacific Heritage Awards for Culture HeritageConservation, the first-place Award of Excellence for a design project in Guangdong (2006), and third place award at the International Residential Design Competition (1994, Japanese Shinkenchiku).



4. SYMPOSIUM

This symposium will be a two-day event at the end of the workshop, combininglectures by well-known scholars and the final presentations by students.

Keynote speaker:

Dr. David Bray
SeniorLecturer, University of Sydney

Speakers:

Juchuan LI
Associate Professor, Hubei Institute of Fine Arts

Dr. Hua LI
Associate Professor, School of Architecture, Southeast University
PhD, Architectural Association School of Architecture

Prof. Dr. Andong LU
Professorin Urbanism and Architectural Theory, Nanjing University
B.Arch.(Tsinghua), M.Phil. (Cantab), Ph.D. (Cantab)

Jiahao Wang
Architect, Architecture Critic, Curator



5. HOW TO APPLY

1) You can make an application to the workshop by completing the online application.This can also be found under ‘Links and Downloads’ on the AA Visiting School page. If you are not able to make an online application, email visitingschool@aaschool.ac.uk for instructions to pay by bank transfer.

2) Once you complete the online application and make a full payment, you are registeredto the programme.

Allparticipants travelling from abroad are responsible for securing any visa required, and are advised to contact their home embassy early. After payment offees, the AA School can provide a letter confirming participation in the workshop and assistance.

FEES
The AA Visiting School requires a fee of £695 per participant, which includes a £60 Visiting membership fee. A limited amount of group discounts are available on request, please contact the Visiting School directors via the VS School administration at visitingschool@aaschool.ac.uk to discuss.

Fees do not include flights or accommodation, but accommodation options can be advised. Students need to bring their own laptops and digital equipment. Please ensurethis equipment is covered by your own insurance as the AA takes no responsibility for items lost or stolen at the workshop.

ELIGIBILITY
The workshop is open to students, professionals and researchers with an interest in architecture, urban design and planning. Fluency in speaking, reading and writing English is expected.

AWARD
On completion of the workshop, participants will be awarded a certificate from the Architectural Association endorsed by the directors of the Visiting School and the director of the School.



6. The Architectural Association School of Architecture

The architectural association school of Architecture is located at London. It's founded in 1847. Since then, it has been well know as its pioneering, leadingthe forefront of experimental architecture teaching. While AA visiting school occupies the key part of AA worldwide architectural education collaboration. AAVS is aiming at bringing the most advanced architectural concept to different countries. Through the cooperation with local institutions, with the most cutting-edge teaching philosophy andacademic resources, AAVS explores endemic experimental architectural education.



7. NOTES on ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATIONS at the AA and in China
From the view of AA Wuhan Visiting School Co-Director – Jingru Cyan Cheng:

Architectural Association (AA) is aschool that celebrates the different visions of architecture. The diversity and clarity of each vision offered in this school are globally unique. When first entering the ‘AA world’, the difference between these two academic environments was a great culture shock to me. I came to realise that the AA’s uniqueness is mainly attributed to each unit or programme pursuing their own vision of architecture, put forward not only by tutors but also by students, thus contributing to the diversity found in the school.

The education I have received at the AA is in pursuit of ‘principles’ at both architectural and urban scales. Therefore I understand researchas a dialectic process that considers phenomena and essence, the universality and fragmentation of the architectural discourse, which can be conceptualised through different fundamental architectural and urban models. One needs to understand that architecture exists and acts far beyond physical buildings. Architecturecan be seen as concrete manifestations of political, economic and social forces in an era. In other words, one can gain an idea of an era through its typical architecture. Therefore, architecture mediates between knowledge and built environment. For example, I believe that there is a political aspect to architecture, when the built environment educates people and imagine show a well-functioning and harmonious society should look like. Architecture constructs an idea of what ought to be rather than what is. Therefore, an architectis someone inventing a common language or a common system of principles that can be shared.

The conventional architectural educationin China is focused on techniques, materials and spaces, which are importantyet only one means of embodiment. It trains architectural practitioners capable of realising the physical forms of architecture. On the other hand, the AA provides an education that questions and radicalises knowledge of thearchitectural discipline. Architecture is considered as thoughts that reflecton a time in history or in the future beyond its limitation to physical forms .Following from this, many AA works should be seen more as a political andsocial manifesto than design solutions. Besides the actual research produced,this is what I learned from the AA. An insight more valuable to me than the research itself.

Note: This is an excerpt from the original article by Jingru Cyan Cheng published on ‘Urban Flux’, 2015 (05):94-77, modified by the author.





AA武汉访问学校详情请见:
http://china.aaschool.ac.uk
https://www.aaschool.ac.uk/STUDY/VISITING/wuhan
          
All rights reserved @ACROSS Architecture 建築東西  | acrossarchitecture@gmail.com   |     ︎